• Section Cover Ultrasonography


    Head Veterinarian: Ignatios Liapis

Ultrasound Department

At Plakentia Veterinary Clinic, imaging scans are performed at the Radiology & Ultrasound Department. If more specialized imaging is required, such as a CT or MRI scan, the Clinic works with Alfa Vet and veterinary imaging specialist Ioannis Panopoulos.

Diagnostic ultrasound imaging is a modern technique for visualizing tissue and has proven beneficial in small animal veterinary medicine. It is a dynamic exam that is based on the physician's skills and experience to detect differences between healthy and diseased tissue, as well as the ability to distinguish the normal differences that exist among animals. Latest technology devices are also used, which operate based on the principle of piezoelectricity. These devices provide high-resolution images and offer many features, such as freeze frame images, measurement capabilities, magnification and the possibility of having the images printed on paper or film.

We have been performing ultrasounds since 1993. At Plakentia Veterinary Clinic, the ultrasound scans are performed using state-of-the-art high-resolution systems (Esaote MyLab 70 for general ultrasound and Accutome plus for ophthalmic ultrasounds). After 23 years, we possess the necessary experience to investigate even the most demanding conditions, but also perform specialized techniques, such as collection of deep tissue samples under direct ultrasound guidance.

Although ultrasound scans are basically a dynamic exam, the images can be printed and attached to the medical opinion given to the animal owner or emailed to the referring veterinarian.

A comprehensive list of findings that may arise during an ultrasound scan is provided below. However note that, even though an ultrasound scan is enough to diagnose most of these conditions, others may also need further medical tests before a final diagnosis is made. This method also assists in other interventional medical procedures (e.g. ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration of the liver, prostate, kidney, etc.).


Focal lesions
  1. Fibrosis
  2. Calcification
  3. Hemorrhaging
  4. Neoplasms (e.g. lymphosarcoma)
  5. Benign nodular hyperplasia
  6. Hematomas
  7. Intrahepatic abscesses
  8. Necrosis / infarctions
  9. Cysts
Diffuse lesions
  1. Neoplasms
  2. Cirrhosis
  3. Acute hepatitis


  1. Acute or chronic cholecystitis
  2. Differentiating between extrahepatic
    obstructive jaundice and other types


  1. Hepatic vein disorders
    (e.g. hepatic venous congestion)
  2. Portal vein anastomoses
  3. Congenital hepatic
    arteriovenous fistulas


  1. Neoplasms (e.g. hemangiomas)
  2. Hemorrhaging
  3. Abscesses
  4. Infarctions


Focal lesions
  1. Abscesses
  2. Neoplasms
  3. Traumas
  4. Infarctions
Diffuse lesions
  1. Neoplasms
  2. Hypercalcemic renal failure
  3. Chronic parenchymal diseases


  1. Renal pelvis and ureter dilation
    (e.g. hydronephrosis)
  2. Pyelonephritis


  1. Residue
  2. Stones
  3. Blood clots
  1. Thickening
  2. Neoplasms
  3. Bladder rupture
  4. Ectopic ureter
  5. Hydroureter
  6. Ureterocele


Focal lesions
  1. Intraprostatic cysts
  2. Abscesses
Diffuse lesions
  1. Benign hypertrophy
  2. Acute prostatitis
  3. Chronic prostatitis
  4. Neoplasms
Paraprostatic conditions
  1. Paraprostatic cysts


  1. Embryonic death
  2. Pyometra
  3. Granulomas
  4. Abscesses
  5. Neoplasms


  1. Polycystic ovaries
  2. Neoplasms


  1. Neoplasms
  2. Abscesses
  3. Granulomas
  4. Hematomas
  5. Differentiating between
    intratesticular and
    paratesticular lesions
  6. Oscheocele


  1. Fluid
  2. Masses (e.g. neoplasm)
  3. Abscesses
  4. Cysts
  5. Hematomas


  1. Enlargement (e.g. Cushing's syndrome)
  2. Hyperplasia
  3. Neoplasm
  4. Masses not related to Cushing's syndrome


  1. Acute pancreatitis
  2. Dilation of small bowel loops
  3. Large bowel wall thickening
  4. Abdominal masses (e.g. neoplasm)


Congenital heart defects
  1. Patent ductus arteriosus
  2. Aortic stenosis
  3. Pulmonary artery stenosis
  4. Atrial septal defects
  5. Ventricular septal defects
  6. Tetralogy of Fallot
  7. Atrioventricular valve dysplasias
Acquired heart defects
  1. Mitral valve failure
  2. Tricuspid valve failure
  3. Bacterial endocarditis
  4. Cardiomyopathy (dilated, hypertrophic)
  5. Pericardial effusion
  6. Constrictive pericarditis


  1. Fluid (e.g. blood, transudate, lymph)
  2. Masses (e.g. neoplasms)
  3. Swollen lymph nodes (e.g. lymphosarcoma)
  4. Diaphragmatic rupture (e.g. hiatal hernia)


  1. Masses in the third eyelid
  2. Masses in the periocular tissue
  3. Corneal or lens opacity
  4. Hyphema
  5. Changes in the size of the eyeball
    (e.g. hydrophthalmos, microphthalmia, phthisis bulbi)
  6. Cataract
  7. Lens dislocation
  8. Intraocular masses
  9. Intraocular foreign objects
  10. Hemorrhaging of the anterior and/or
    posterior chamber
  11. Retinal detachment


  1. Foreign objects
  2. Masses (e.g. abscesses, neoplasms)


  1. Characterization of superficial masses,
    such as benign or malignant superficial neoplasms
  2. Hematomas, abscesses
  3. Sialocele
01 01
1. Splenic vein thrombosis in dog
02 01
2. Cirrhosis of the liver in dog / Ascites
03 01
3. Urinary bladder neoplasm in dog
04 01
4. Spleen neoplasm
05 01
5. Gallbladder neoplasm in dog
06 01
6. Canine pancreatitis
07 01
7. Congenital renal dysplasia in dog
08 01
8. Hydronephrosis in dog
09 01
9. Ultrasound of left adrenal gland in dog
10 01
10. Hyperadrenocorticism in dog. Ultrasound of left adrenal gland
11 01
11a. Chronic cystitis and prostatitis in dog
11 02
11b. Chronic cystitis and prostatitis in dog
12 01
12a. Chronic pancreatitis in cat. Bile duct obstruction
12 02
12b. Chronic pancreatitis in cat. Bile duct obstruction